- Properties of the whole differ and are said to emerge from their constituent parts
- As a result systems cannot be understood by analysis of the individual components. A bicycle, or otherwise identified as a transportation system, cannot be understood full just by looking at the pedals and the chain and the wheels on their own!!!
- Boundaries of systems are determined by the perspectives of those who participate in formulating them. The result if a System of interest. For my PhD I will therefore need to develop my own System of Interest based on my perspective of the research.
- Individuals hold partial views of the whole and when these are combined they provide multiple partial views
- Systems are characterised by feedback
- Systems thinking concentrates on basic principles of organisations
- Context and process need to be taken into account
- Systems are nested within other systems – you have a hierarchy of systems.